(BlockBar) The so-called Casper is a brand-new consensus agreement to be adopted after ETHEREUM 2.0 abandons POW and enters POS. In short, it specifies how the verifiers on the beacon chain reached a “consensus” in the era of 2.0.
There are two versions of the ETHEREUM Casper protocol. One is the FFG version proposed by Vitalik Buterin and the other is the CBC version proposed by Vlad Zamfir. The two versions have the same goal, both of which are to ensure the security of ETHEREUM 2.0. But the specific implementation methods are different. The reason why Ethereum wants to propose two versions to achieve the same goal is not that Ethereum likes to waste resources, but because Casper is vital for Ethereum 2.0. If something goes wrong in Casper, it will be enough to destroy the whole platform. In the beacon chain of ETHEREUM 2.0, it is divided into 1024 pieces, each of which has a lot of validators. These validators are managed by 128 committees. For Casper, it is to provide “consensus rules” for these validators and committees. That is to say, if Casper fails, the beacon chain will be destroyed, ensuing the whole building of Ethereum will collapse.
Although Casper originated from the traditional Byzantine protocol (that is, to ensure that the system can still operate safely when 1/3 of the nodes are broken), the development of Casper is very difficult. Because the traditional Byzantine fault tolerance can solve the consensus of a chain, but it seems that few public chains have more feasible ideas about it. In Ethereum 2.0, there are 1024 segments, which can be understood as at least 1024 chains (because chains can be re-linked). That is to say, Casper needs to provide consensus for at least 1024 chains at the same time, so the development difficulty of Casper can be imagined.
As for CBC or FFG, nobody knows which way is better. But since the basic principles of the two are the same, if you don’t specialize in research technology, you can ignore the difference between them. Because no matter which version of Capser is ultimately adopted, the goal is to be able to install a stronger and safer engine for ETHEREUM 2.0.
Due to difficulty in developing and its long development circle, so many people do not think highly of ETHEREUM. There are two main reasons. One is that various other public chains are booming. The other is that ETHEREUM has chosen the most difficult way in the process of upgrading. Plus, there’s news that developers are leaving ETHEREUM to serve other public chains rendering it more proofs. Therefore, it is the widely believed that Ethereum 2.0 is no longer working. But for such challenging work, development delays are normal. It’s better to be cautious about such risky thing and walk on your own way, although there exists suspicion toward you.
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